System Administration Guide
Appendix D, Using the crash(ADM) diagnostic tool

Examining kernel text

Examining kernel text

In this example, we examine the trap handler in the kernel that deals with page faults (trap type 14, or 0xe in hexadecimal; see the trap(M) manual page for a list of possible CPU exceptions).

  1. Use the idt command to find the segment selector and offset of the trap handler from the Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT):
    > idt 0xe
    iAPX386 IDT
    CPU SLOT     SELECTOR OFFSET   TYPE       DPL  ACCESSBITS
      0   14         0158 f0011080 TGATE386     0  CNT=0
    
    The displayed offset address, 0xf0011080 corresponds to the virtual address of the trap handler. The slot in the system GDT pointed to by the segment selector can be obtained by right-shifting its value by 3 places (0x0158 >> 3). This gives slot 43 in the GDT which describes the kernel's text segment. Figure D-3 illustrates how the offset point to the first level interrupt handler in the kernel's text segment.

  2. The dis command can be used to examine the kernel code at this address. For example, to disassemble two lines of kernel code:
    > dis 0xf0011080 2
    pftrap              pushl  $0xe
    pftrap+0x2          jmp    0xfffff0f1 <0xf0010178>   [cmntrap]
    
    The handler routine pftrap calls the common trap handler routine cmntrap; this can be disassembled by specifying its symbolic name to dis:
    > dis cmntrap 6
    cmntrap             pushal
    cmntrap+0x1         pushl  %ds
    cmntrap+0x2         pushl  %es
    cmntrap+0x3         pushl  %fs
    cmntrap+0x4         pushl  %gs
    cmntrap+0x5         pushfl
    


Figure D-3 How an Interrupt Descriptor Table entry indexes the first level interrupt handler in the kernel's text segment


NOTE: On MPX systems, each active CPU has its own private IDT and GDT (there is, however, only one copy of the kernel's text.) If you do not specify a CPU to the idt or gdt commands, crash displays the descriptor tables for all CPUs. Use the -c cpu option to specify the CPU in which you are interested. The base processor is always cpu 0.